Corrections, Retractions & Expressions of Concern

The Journal of Applied Nursing and Health (JANH), ensures that all of its published journals follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) ( and the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (  

We aim to ensure the integrity of the academic record of all published or potential publications. Whenever it is recognized that a significant inaccuracy, misleading statement, or distorted report has been published, it must be corrected promptly and with due prominence. If, after an appropriate investigation, an item proves to be fraudulent, it should be retracted. The retraction should be clearly identifiable to readers and indexing systems.


Errors in published papers may be identified in the form of a corrigendum or erratum when the Editor-in-Chief considers it appropriate to inform the journal readership about a previous error and makes a correction to the error in the published article. The corrigendum or erratum will appear as a new article in the journal and will cite the original published article.


Retractions are considered and published when there are severe errors in an article that invalidate the conclusions. Retractions are also made in cases where there is evidence of publication malpractice, such as plagiarism, duplicate publication, or unethical research.

According to industry best practice and in accordance with COPE guidelines, AME implements the following procedure if a retraction is confirmed:

  • A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.
  • In the electronic version, a link is made to the original article.
  • The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note. It is to this screen that the link resolves; the reader can then proceed to the article itself.
  • The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the HTML and PDF indicating on each page that it has been “retracted.”

Article Withdrawal

Articles can be withdrawn before being accepted for publication by the appropriate author. If approved, it can only be used for articles in the Press that reflect the initial version of the article and often contain errors or may have been sent twice accidentally. Articles can sometimes, but more rarely, violate professional codes of ethics, such as multiple submissions, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like.
Articles that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been officially published and do not yet have a volume/issue / complete page information) that includes errors, or are found to be accidental duplicates of other published articles, or are determined to violate the ethical guidelines for publishing our journals in view editors (such as multiple submissions, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like), maybe "revoked" from The Journal of Applied Nursing and Health (JANH).

Article deletion: legal restrictions

In a very limited number of cases, it may be necessary to delete articles from an online database. This will only happen where the article is clearly defamatory or violates someone else's legal rights, or where the article is, or we have good reason to expect it, the subject of a court order, or where the article if followed up, can pose serious health risks. In this case, while the metadata (Title and Author) will be retained, the text will be replaced with a screen indicating the article has been removed for legal reasons.

Article Substitution

In cases where the article, if followed up, could pose a serious health risk, the original article writer might want to revoke the original and replace it with an improved version. In this case, the procedure for revocation will be followed the difference that the database revocation notification will publish a link to the re-published article that has been corrected and the document history.

Editorial expressions of concern

Where substantial doubt arises as to the honesty or integrity of a submitted or published article, journal editors may consider issuing an expression of concern. However, expressions of concern should only be issued if an investigation into the problems relating to the article has proven inconclusive and if there remain strong indicators that the concerns are valid.  Under some rare cases, an editorial expression of concern may also be issued when an investigation is underway but a judgment will not be available for a considerable time. The expression of concern will be linked back to the published article it relates to.

The Author Unilaterally withdrew the Manuscript

Authors are discouraged from withdrawing submitted manuscripts after it is in the publication process (review, copyedit, layout, etc.,). During that time, JANH had spent valuable resources besides time spent in the process. Should under any circumstances the author(s) still request for a withdrawal, the author(s) should pay back every effort put into the manuscript processes at an amount of US $150. Paid upon official request from the author(s) in an email sent to JNP's editor using the same email address used in correspondence.


The mechanism follows the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) which can be accessed at
 For your convenience, the same document is shown below.