Risk Factors Of Stroke: Literature Review


  • Adirson Barbosa de Oliveira Instituto Superior Cristal (ISC), Rua, Estrada de Balide , Dili, Timor Leste
  • Abdul Muhith Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Nahdlatul Ulama University Surabaya
  • Chilyatiz Zahro Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Nahdlatul Ulama University Surabaya




Public Knowledge, Risk Factors , Stroke


Background: Stroke is the most common cause of disease in the world and is the highest cause of death in Indonesia, so prevention is very important to minimise the incidence of stroke. The most appropriate effort to prevent stroke is to control stroke risk factors. The purpose of the literature review is to analyse the risk factors associated with stroke events in patients.

Methods: The method used is a literature review using a journal database from Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In the 2019-2023 range, with the keywords "stroke, factors causing stroke", and stroke, 220 articles were obtained

Results: Search for articles according to the criteria and obtain ten articles that are ready to be reviewed. These articles explain the risk factors for stroke. It is hoped that stroke patients will try to control stroke risk factors

Conclusion: This literature review shows that the risk factors for stroke are increasing due to a history of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, age, gender, high cholesterol, obesity, lack of public knowledge about stroke and consumption of alcohol, smoking and drugs, including a lifestyle


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Akhtar, N., Singh, R., Kamran, S., Babu, B., Sivasankaran, S., Joseph, S., Morgan, D., & Shuaib, A. (2022). Diabetes: Chronic Metformin Treatment and Outcome Following Acute Stroke. Frontiers in Neurology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.849607

Chishi, K. V, Patel, B. C., Umrania, R. A., Sanghavi, P. R., Yadav, V. S., & Raval, L. V. (2023). Prevalence of Delirium in Advance Cancer Patients Admitted in Hospice Centre and Outcome after Palliative Intervention. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 29(1), 82–88. https://doi.org/10.25259/IJPC_114_2022

Dedi, D., Syamsul, D., & Siregar, R. T. (2023). Profil Penggunaan Obat pada Pasien Stroke Iskemik pada Pasien di Poli Neurologi. Borneo Nursing Journal (BNJ), 5(1), 36–45.

Dhamoon, M. S., Thaler, A., Gururangan, K., Kohli, A., Sisniega, D., Wheelwright, D., Mensching, C., Fifi, J. T., Fara, M. G., Jette, N., Cohen, E., Dave, P., Dirisio, A. C., Goldstein, J., Loebel, E. M., Mayman, N. A., Sharma, A., Thomas, D. S., Vega Perez, R. D., … Stein, L. K. (2021). Acute Cerebrovascular Events With COVID-19 Infection. Stroke, 52(1), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031668

Grimaud, O., Lachkhem, Y., Gao, F., Padilla, C., Bertin, M., Nowak, E., & Timsit, S. (2019). Stroke incidence and case fatality according to rural or urban residence results from the French Brest Stroke Registry. Stroke, 50(10), 2661–2667. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.024695

Héja, M., Fekete, I., Horváth, L., Márton, S., & Fekete, K. E. (2021). Experiences With Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Elderly Patients–A “Real World Scenario.” Frontiers in Neurology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.721337

Jeong, H.-Y., Jung, K.-H., Mo, H., Lee, C.-H., Kim, T. J., Park, J.-M., Oh, M., Lee, J. S., Kim, B. J., Kim, J.-T., Kim, J., Seo, W.-K., Lee, J., Cha, J.-K., Ko, S.-B., Bae, H.-J., & Yoon, B.-W. (2020). Characteristics and management of stroke in Korea: 2014–2018 data from Korean Stroke Registry. International Journal of Stroke, 15(6), 619–626. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747493019884517

Kono, Y., Terasawa, Y., Sakai, K., Iguchi, Y., Nishiyama, Y., Nito, C., Suda, S., Kimura, K., Kanzawa, T., Imafuku, I., Nakayama, T., Ueda, M., Iwanaga, T., Kono, T., Yamashiro, K., Tanaka, R., Okubo, S., Nakajima, M., Nakajima, N., … Murakami, Y. (2020). Risk factors, etiology, and outcome of ischemic stroke in young adults: A Japanese multicenter prospective study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117068

Lilipory, M., Pattipelohy, M. H., & Tuarissa, Y. S. (2019). Motivasi dan Sumber Informasi Berhubungan Dengan Pencegahan Stroke Berulang. MOLUCCAS HEALTH JOURNAL, 1(3).

Manurung, M., & Diani, N. (2015). Analisis Faktor Risiko Stroke Pada Pasien Stroke Rawat Inap di RSUD Banjarbaru. Dunia Keperawatan: Jurnal Keperawatan Dan Kesehatan, 3(1), 74–85.


Othadinar, K., Alfarabi, M., & Maharani, V. (2019). Faktor risiko pasien stroke iskemik dan hemoragik. Majalah Kedokteran UKI, 35(3), 115–120.

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Sutherly, L. J., Wasserman, J., & Haussen, D. C. (2021). Carotid Web and Ischemic Stroke: A Primer for Nursing. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 53(3), 140–142. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNN.0000000000000589

Sykora, M., Krebs, S., Simader, F., Gattringer, T., Greisenegger, S., Ferrari, J., Bernegger, A., Posekany, A., & Lang, W. (2022). Intravenous thrombolysis in stroke with admission NIHSS score 0 or 1. International Journal of Stroke, 17(1), 109–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991969

Tang, S.-C., Chen, Y.-R., Chi, N.-F., Chen, C.-H., Cheng, Y.-W., Hsieh, F.-I., Hsieh, Y.-C., Yeh, H.-L., Sung, P.-S., Hu, C.-J., Chern, C.-M., Lin, H.-J., Lien, L.-M., Peng, G.-S., Chiou, H.-Y., & Jeng, J.-S. (2019). Prevalence and clinical characteristics of stroke patients with p.R544C NOTCH3 mutation in Taiwan. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 6(1), 121–128. https://doi.org/10.1002/acn3.690

Tong, Y., Lee, H., Kohls, W., Han, Z., Duan, H., Cheng, Z., Li, F., Gao, J., Liu, J., Geng, X., & Ding, Y. (2022). Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) with exercise (RICE) is safe and feasible for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Frontiers in Neurology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.981498

Utama, Y. A., & Nainggolan, S. S. (2022). Faktor Resiko yang Mempengaruhi Kejadian Stroke: Sebuah Tinjauan Sistematis. Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Batanghari Jambi, 22(1), 549–553.

Wilbers, J., Sondag, L., Mulder, S., Siegerink, B., & van Dijk, E. J. (2020). Cancer prevalence higher in stroke patients than in the general population: the Dutch String-of-Pearls Institute (PSI) Stroke study. European Journal of Neurology, 27(1), 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.14037

Zhao, H., Wang, B., Xu, G., Dong, Y., Dong, Q., & Cao, W. (2019). Collateral grade of the Willis’ circle predicts outcomes of acute intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion before thrombectomy. Brain and Behavior, 9(12). https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1452




How to Cite

Oliveira, A. B. de ., Muhith, A., & Zahro, C. (2023). Risk Factors Of Stroke: Literature Review. Journal of Applied Nursing and Health, 5(2), 347–354. https://doi.org/10.55018/janh.v5i2.166